FERTILITY TREATMENT Article · 5 August 2022

Operational fertility treatment for women

About 15% of couples in Poland have a fertility problem. Fortunately, modern medicine is increasingly able to remedy it by offering various effective treatments for infertile couples. It happens that a woman has to undergo surgery to have a chance to get pregnant and give birth to a healthy child.

Operational fertility treatment for women

This is the case, for example, when she has an uterine or fallopian tube abnormality. Read this article and find out what surgical treatment of female infertility looks like.


Hysteroscopy – effective treatment method of myomas, polyps and uterine septum


Hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery. The device, called a hysteroscope, has a special camera built-in, thanks to which the doctor can examine the inside of the uterus very closely. Interventional hysteroscopy is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including uterine fibroids, polyps, adhesions or septum of the uterus. During hysteroscopy, it is also possible to collect material for histopathological examination.


Gynecological laparoscopy


Gynecological laparoscopy is another minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical method that allows for accurate assessment and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs. The range of possibilities offered by modern laparoscopy is very wide. Today, with the help of this device, we can successfully remove foci of endometriosis, adhesions in the smaller pelvis also around the fallopian tubes. Gynecological laparoscopy also allows the removal of cysts, nodules and fibroids. It also does not require opening the abdominal cavity, thanks to which the patient recovers much faster after the procedure. It is performed under general aneasthesia. It is also worth adding that the incisions made by the doctor are no more than 10 mm. The patient does not have to worry that after the surgery she will have unsightly scars.


Myomas operational treatment


Uterine fibroids are a benign form of uterine cancer that is very common among women of childbearing potential. They have the form of tumors of various sizes and round shape. They occur individually or in groups and very often do not make themselves felt in any way. Only 30% of women experience some discomfort – in the form of heavy and painful periods, abdominal pain or frequent urination. Large fibroids, especially those that have reached more than 4 cm, can also unfortunately affect fertility and should therefore be cut. Currently, this is done using minimally invasive methods, including hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.


Operational treatment of pathologies in the fallopian tubes area


Surgical correction of the fallopian tubes is performed mainly in women with unobstructed fallopian tubes who have membranous adhesions or minor abnormalities in the fallopian tubes of the fallopian tubes. Narrowing or thickening of the fallopian tube will also be an indication for surgery. These types of pathologies within the female reproductive organs are corrected today by means of hysteroscopy.


Uterine septum operational treatment


A uterine septum occurs when a piece of tissue divides the uterus into two parts, with the septum being partial or complete. In the first case, it only reaches from the bottom to the lumen of the uterus to some extent. In the second case, the septum runs through the entire uterine cavity – from the bottom, to the cervical canal, up to the external outlet – dividing the uterine lumen into two parts. The septum of the uterus is removed by a hysteroscopic method, often combined with gynecological laparoscopy. This treatment is recommended primarily for women struggling with habitual miscarriages, premature births, pain during intercourse and menstruation.


Operational endometriosis treatment


Endometriosis is a disease involving the formation of endometrial foci outside the uterus. Untreated, it can significantly reduce a woman’s comfort of life, causing severe lower abdominal pain during menstruation, painful sexual intercourse and contributing to infertility. Endometriosis foci along with possible adhesions are removed laparoscopically. A plasma knife is currently considered the best tool for destroying endometriosis. It allows very precise removal of endometrial changes and is associated with a lower risk of damage to the ovarian reserve. This is possible because in this case a plasma stream is used instead of a scalpel. Surgical treatment of endometriosis allows you to restore the normal structure of the uterus, freeing it from formed tumors and adhesions.


So far, scientists have not been able to find a link between the occurrence of small endometrial polyps and infertility. Therefore, it is not recommended to remove them unless they have been confirmed before the start of infertility treatment or when the treatment fails. It is also not recommended to remove endometrial ovarian cysts up to 3 cm in diameter. Why? Because it does not significantly improve women’s fertility. Her reproductive potential may even decrease after surgery.


Operational treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome


Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine diseases among women of childbearing age, it affects up to 12% of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is accompanied by various symptoms, including menstrual disorders, fertility disorders, skin problems (acne), obesity, excessive body hair or hair loss. What is this disease about? At birth, the girl’s ovaries are equipped with up to 2 million follicles. During one cycle, many of them mature, but only one becomes the dominant follicle, or Graff’s follicle. Exactly from this follicle,  an egg ready for fertilization is released. The remaining follicles disappear.


However, in a woman suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome, the whole process is completely different. None of the follicles mature to the dominant form. Instead, many immature follicles accumulate in the ovary to form small cysts. In addition, they produce excessive amounts of androgens, i.e. male sex hormones. Menstrual cycles of women with PCOS are often anovulatory, which means that patients may have problems conceiving. In this case, ovulation is stimulated. If the body does not respond to such therapy, the woman is recommended laparoscopic treatment.

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